Reference card - BLUES

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The reference card is a clearly defined description of model features. The numerous options have been organized into a limited amount of default and model specific (non default) options. In addition some features are described by a short clarifying text.


  • not implemented
  • implemented
  • implemented (not default option)


Name and version


Institution and users

Centro de Economia Energetica e Ambiental/Programa de Planejamento Energetico (Cenergia), Brazil,
main users: Alexandre Köberle, Pedro Rochedo, Andre Lucena, Alexandre Szklo, ROberto Schaeffer

Model scope and methods

Model documentation: Model scope and methods - BLUES


BLUES is a model of Brazilian land use and energy system. The objective of the model is to explore long-term dynamics and impacts resulting from the interaction of energy, emissions and land use constraints under different policy scenarios.


BLUES is a cost-optimization model aiming to represent interactions between human activities and the environment. Such activities include agriculture and industrial activity; energy services demand for mobility, heat and lighting; and environmental protection.

Solution method

Perfect Foresight Cost Minimization


Used in conjunction with the global COFFEE model which determines boundary conditions such as global energy costs and emissions budgets. this allows for globally consistent representation of traded commodities in the national context. Currently under development is a CGE model that will provide global macroeconomic consistency.

Temporal dimension

Base year:2010, time steps:5 years, horizon: 2050

Spatial dimension

Number of regions:6

  1. Brasil, North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, South

Policy implementation

Climate policy Energy policies (System expansion, shares, intermittent source constraints) Land use policies (food and bio-energy)

Socio economic drivers

Model documentation: Socio-economic drivers - BLUES

Exogenous drivers

  • Exogenous GDP
  • Total Factor Productivity
  • Labour Productivity
  • Capital Technical progress
  • Energy Technical progress
  • Materials Technical progress
  • GDP per capita
  • Learning-by-doing
  • Population


  • GDP per capita
  • Income distribution in a region
  • Urbanisation rate
  • Education level
  • Labour participation rate

Macro economy

Model documentation: Macro-economy - BLUES

Economic sectors

  • Agriculture
  • Industry
  • Energy
  • Transport
  • Services
  • Households

Cost measures

  • GDP loss
  • Welfare loss
  • Consumption loss
  • Area under MAC
  • Energy system costs


  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Electricity
  • Bioenergy crops
  • Food crops
  • Capital
  • Emissions permits
  • Non-energy goods
  • Bioenergy products
  • Diesel
  • Gasoline
  • Agriculture


Model documentation: Energy - BLUES

Resource use

  • Coal
  • Oil
  • Gas
  • Uranium
  • Biomass

Electricity technologies

  • Coal
  • Gas
  • Oil
  • Nuclear
  • Biomass
  • Wind
  • Solar PV
  • CSS

Conversion technologies

  • CHP
  • Heat pumps
  • Hydrogen
  • Fuel to gas
  • Fuel to liquid

Grid and infrastructure

  • Electricity
  • Gas
  • Heat
  • CO2
  • H2

Energy technology substitution

  • Discrete technology choices
  • Expansion and decline constraints
  • System integration constraints

Energy service sectors

  • Transportation
  • Industry
  • Residential and commercial
  • Agriculture


Model documentation: Land-use - BLUES; Non-climate sustainability dimension - BLUES


  • Cropland
  • Extensive Pastures
  • Forest
  • Grassland
  • Intensive Pastures
  • Protected land
  • pasture
  • Integrated Systems
  • Double Cropping
  • Savannas

Other resources

Model documentation: Non-climate sustainability dimension - BLUES

Other resources

  • Water
  • Metals
  • Cement
  • Chemicals

Emissions and climate

Model documentation: Emissions - BLUES; Climate - BLUES

Green house gasses

  • CO2
  • CH4
  • N2O
  • HFCs
  • CFCs
  • SFs

Note: Separated per sector AFOLU, Process Emissions, Combustion


  • NOx
  • SOx
  • BC
  • OC
  • Ozone

Climate indicators

  • CO2e concentration (ppm)
  • Radiative Forcing (Wm2 )
  • Temperature change (C°)
  • Climate damages $ or equivalent