IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

Emission table

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Air pollution emission sources included in IMAGE are listed in the Emission table

Source Activity level CO2 CH4 N2O SO2 NOx CO VOC F-gases BC OC NH3
A. Energy related
End-use energy use (industry, transport, residential, services and other) Energy consumption rates EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
Energy sector (production of power, hydrogen, coal, oil, gas, bioenergy) Energy production rates EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
Energy transport Energy transport rates EF
Other energy conversion Energy conversion rates EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
B. Industry related
Emissions from industrial process Industry value added (IVA) EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF EF
Cement and Steel Regional production EF
C. Agriculture and land-use-related
Enteric fermentation, cattle Feed type and amount GMa
Animal waste, all animal categories Number of animals GEF GEF GEF GEFb
Landfills Population GEF
Deforestation Carbon burnt GM GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF
Agricultural waste burning Carbon burnt GM GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF
Traditional biomass burning Carbon burnt GM GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF
Savannah burning Carbon burnt GM GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF GEF
Domestic sewage treatment Population, GDP GEF GEF
Wetland rice fields Area wetland rice GEF
Crops Fertilizser and manure inputs GM GM GM
Managed grassland N fertiliser and manure input, crop type GM GM GM
Indirect emissions N crops, fertiliser and manure input GM
Land use change Clearing forest areas GM
D. Natural sources
Soils under natural vegetation Net primary production GM GM GEF
Natural vegetation N/A W W
Wild fires N/A W W
Oceans N/A W W W W
Natural wetlands N/A W
Termites N/A W
Wild animals Net primary production W
Methane hydrates N/A W
Volcanoes N/A W W
Lightning N/A W W

Activity level describes the activity level to which the emission factor is applied, or the main determinant for the gridded model.

Methods:

  • W = Global emissions;
  • EF =Regional emission factor applied to the specified activity level;
  • GEF = Grid-specific emission calculated from gridded activity level and (regional) emission factor;
  • GM = Gridded, model-based emission (statistical or process-based model).

Footnotes:

a GM for dairy and non-dairy cattle, emission factors for other animal categories.
b EF for NH3 emissions from animal houses, manure storage and grazing livestock; GM for NH3 emissions from manure spreading.