IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

IMAGE framework summary/References


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Key publications

PBL, 2012
PBL (2012). Roads from Rio+20: Pathways to achieve global sustainability goals by 2050‚ D.P. Van Vuuren‚ M.T.J. Kok (eds.)‚ PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency‚ The Hague. Link to PBL-website:

Stehfest et al., 2014
E. Stehfest‚ D.P. van Vuuren‚ L. Bouwman‚ T.Kram‚ R. Alkemade‚ M. Bakkenes‚ H. Biemans, A. Bouwman‚ M. den Elzen‚ J. Janse‚ P. Lucas‚ J. van Minnen‚ C. Müller‚ A. Prins (2014). IMAGE 3.0‚ PBL.
Link to PBL-website:

All cited references

FAO, 2013a
FAO (2013). FAOSTAT database collections.  Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rome. Access date: 2013-04-22.  URL:

Hoogwijk, 2004
M. Hoogwijk (2004). On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources.  Science, Technology and Society. Ph.D. thesis. Utrecht University. Utrecht, The Netherlands.  URL:

IEA, 2012
IEA (2012). Global Wood Pellet Industry Market and Trade Study‚ International Energy Agency (IEA)‚ Paris (URL:

IPCC-DDC, 2007
IPCC-DDC (2007). AR4 GCM data: SRES scenarios.  IPCC Data Distribution Centre (DDC).  URL:

JRC/PBL, 2012
JRC/PBL (2012). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.0.  European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC) / PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency. Access date: 2009-07-01.  URL:

Lucas et al., 2007
P. L. Lucas‚ D.P Van Vuuren‚ J.G.J. Olivier‚ M. G.J. Den Elzen (2007). Long-term reduction potential of non-CO2 greenhouse gases. Environmental Science & Policy‚ 10(2)‚ pp.85-103.
Link to PBL-website:

Mulders et al., 2006
F.M.M. Mulders‚ J.M.M. Hettelar‚ F. Van Bergen (2006). Assessment of the global fossil fuel reserves and resources for TIMER‚ TNO Built Environment and Geosciences‚ Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Müller et al., in revision
Ch. Müller‚ E. Stehfest‚ J.G. van Minnen‚ B. Strengers‚ W. von Bloh‚ A. Beusen‚ S. Schaphoff‚ T. Kram‚ W. Lucht (in revision). Reversal of the land biosphere carbon balance under climate and land-use change. Natures Climate Change, in revision, available on request.

USGS, 2000
USGS (2000). World Petroleum Assessment 2000‚ US Geological Survey‚ Washington DC (URL: