IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

Key policy issues maintenance overview

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Overview of all key policy issues

ComponentPolicy QuestionPolicy DescriptionTheme item
PQ1 (AEF) What is the area of cropland and grassland required to support future food demand?
PQ2 (AEF) What are the policy options to reduce agricultural land use and to safeguard global biodiversity, while ensuring food security?
PQ3 (AEF) How can the implications of biofuels for land use and greenhouse gases be managed sustainably?
PQ2 (APEP) How can the goals for affordable, clean and reliable energy be achieved taking into account possible synergies and trade-offs?
PQ1 (APEP) How do energy policies contribute to economic and social development, and how do they support or hamper a more sustainable future?
PQ3 (AB) How will policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors contribute to meeting the internationally agreed targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
PQ2 (AB) What are the key pressure factors causing loss of aquatic biodiversity?
PQ1 (AB) How will the biodiversity in freshwater bodies develop in the absence of additional policies and measures?
PQ1 (ACC) What would be the impact of global climate change in this century without additional mitigation policies and measures?
PQ3 (ACC) To what extent does the uncertainty of geographical patterns in temperature and precipitation change influence future climate impacts and response strategies?
PQ2 (ACC) To what extent would the various scenarios to significantly reduce net greenhouse gas emissions lead to a reduction in climate change?
PQ3(NVCC) What are the contributions of land-use change, climate change and CO2 fertilization on the future carbon cycle and how can these be considered in climate policies?
PQ1 (NVCC) What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
PQ3 (NVCC) What opportunities exist to reduce land-use related carbon emissions (e.g. REDD) and even enhance the carbon uptake through the establishment of new forests.
PQ2 (NVCC) To what extent can the terrestrial biosphere contribute to reducing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere and what are viable mechanisms?
PQ4 (VHA) What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and associated agricultural production?
PQ3 (VHA) What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
PQ2 (VHA) How do climate change and land-use management affect the land productivity of current and future agricultural land?
PQ1 (CP) What global greenhouse gas emissions pathways would meet the 2 °C climate target?
PQ4 (CP) What are the trade-offs between mitigation costs, adaptation costs, and climate change damage?
PQ2 (CP) What is the effect of effort-sharing approaches on regional and national emission reduction targets and on the cost of climate policies?
PQ2 (CG) How could management improve agricultural productivity under current and future water constraints?
PQ3 (CG) How will agriculture affect the Earth system with respect to carbon emissions, freshwater availability and nutrient cycles?
PQ1 (CG) How will climate change affect the productivity of current and future agricultural areas?
PQ2 (EGS) How could policy interventions contribute to improving future ecosystem services?
PQ1 (EGS) How would ecosystem services and the benefits from the natural environment develop in the absence of specific policies?
PQ3 (EGS) How could policy interventions influence the interaction between ecosystem services and other goals and ambitions, such as the millennium development goals?
PQ1 (E) How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
PQ2 (E) What synergies between climate policy and air pollution control can be identified?
PQ2 (EC) What are the potential roles of individual technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), nuclear power, hydrogen and renewable energy?
PQ1 (EC) What is the potential role of energy conversion sector, particularly in power production, in achieving a more sustainable energy system?
PQ2 (ED) What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand?
PQ1 (ED) How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low-income economies?
PQ3 (ED) How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on the global environment?
PQ3 (ES) How rapidly can the transition to more sustainable energy supply be made?
PQ2 (ES) How can energy supply and demand be balanced between world regions, and how will this effect security of supply?
PQ1 (ES) How can energy resources be exploited to meet future primary energy demand?
PQ3 (ESD) How are these strategies affected by uncertainties in the energy system?
PQ1 (ESD) How can energy supply and demand become more sustainable, balancing human development, security of supply, and concerns about climate change and air pollution?
PQ2 (ESD) What transitions in the energy system would meet long-term climate goals?
PQ3 (FR) What would be suitable adaptation strategies and investment options related to flood risk?
PQ1 (FR) How will future flood risk change as a result of socio-economic changes and climate change?
PQ2 (FR) What would be the impact of floods, in terms of damage and victims, and where are the hot spots?
PQ2 (FM) What are the implications of forest management for pristine and managed forest areas, and on biomass and carbon stocks and fluxes of relevance for climate policy?
PQ1 (FM) How can management influence forest capacity to meet future demand for wood and other ecosystem services?
PQ3 (FM) What are the prospects for more sustainable forest management and the role of production in dedicated forest plantations?
PQ1 (HD) What are the key future trends in human development, such as those targeted by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
PQ3 (HD) How is improved access to food, water and energy likely to contribute to human development?
PQ2 (HD) How are changes in the global environment likely to affect human development?
PQ2 (IF) What are the consequences of these changes for international targets for biodiversity protection (addressed by the CBD), climate change (UNFCCC) and human development (addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals)?
PQ4 (IF) What are the linkages between components of environmental change and human development? What are key uncertainties?
PQ3 (IF) How could response strategies limit environmental pressures and foster more sustainable development?
PQ1 (IF) How could global environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss and air pollution evolve?
PQ2 (LBP) How can changes in consumption patterns contribute to achieving sustainability goals through changes in land use?
PQ3 (LBP) What are the synergies and trade-offs between halting biodiversity loss, food security, reducing nutrient emissions, and reducing water stress?
PQ1 (LBP) How can land-use policies contribute to strategies for halting biodiversity loss and reducing greenhouse gas emissions?
PQ2 (LD) What are the future risks of soil degradation?
PQ1 (LD) In what parts of the world have human-induced changes in land and soil conditions occurred?
PQ3 (LD) To what extent are ecosystem functions lost by soil degradation, adding to local and global concerns about food security, biodiversity loss and climate change?
PQ3 (AS) How can agricultural intensification increase global food production, and what policies will contribute to this?
PQ2 (AS) How will land-use regulation, such as protected areas and REDD schemes, affect future land use and the impacts of land-use change?
PQ1 (AS) How will changes in agricultural demand and trade affect future land-use patterns?
PQ2 (LS) How does the use of marginal lands for grazing increase the risk of degradation and loss of productivity, inducing more forest clearing?
PQ1 (LS) What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?
PQ2 (N) To what extent can the negative impacts be reduced by more efficient nutrient management and wastewater treatment, while retaining the positive effects on food production and land productivity?
PQ1 (N) How will the increasing use of fertilisers affect terrestrial and marine ecosystems, with possible consequences for human health?
PQ2 (TB) What are the key pressure factors causing biodiversity loss?
PQ3 (TB) How will nature conservation policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors of biodiversity loss contribute to meeting the targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
PQ1 (TB) What is the future rate of terrestrial biodiversity loss in the absence of additional policies and measures?
PQ2 (H) What is the potential of adaptation measures to reduce water stress and water-related crop production losses?
PQ1 (H) What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and on associated agricultural production?
PQ3 (H) How can water demand be reduced and still provide the adequate service levels to the sectors with the highest demand?