IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

Key policy issues overview

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Which policy issues are addressed by which component grouped by policy theme. The policy response components (Climate policy, Air pollution and energy policies, Land and biodiversity policies) summarise policy issues and policy interventions.

Theme Climate

Item: Climate adaptation (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Climate policy What are the trade-offs between mitigation costs, adaptation costs, and climate change damage?
Item: Climate change (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Atmospheric composition and climate What would be the impact of global climate change in this century without additional mitigation policies and measures?
Atmospheric composition and climate To what extent does the uncertainty of geographical patterns in temperature and precipitation change influence future climate impacts and response strategies?
Atmospheric composition and climate To what extent would the various scenarios to significantly reduce net greenhouse gas emissions lead to a reduction in climate change?
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What are the contributions of land-use change, climate change and CO2 fertilization on the future carbon cycle and how can these be considered in climate policies?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water How do climate change and land-use management affect the land productivity of current and future agricultural land?
Climate policy What global greenhouse gas emissions pathways would meet the 2 °C climate target?
IMAGE framework summary What are the consequences of these changes for international targets for biodiversity protection (addressed by the CBD), climate change (UNFCCC) and human development (addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals)?
IMAGE framework summary How could global environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss and air pollution evolve?
Land degradation To what extent are ecosystem functions lost by soil degradation, adding to local and global concerns about food security, biodiversity loss and climate change?
Item: Climate impacts (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Climate policy What are the trade-offs between mitigation costs, adaptation costs, and climate change damage?
Crops and grass How will climate change affect the productivity of current and future agricultural areas?
Item: Climate mitigation (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Air pollution and energy policies How do energy policies contribute to economic and social development, and how do they support or hamper a more sustainable future?
Atmospheric composition and climate To what extent would the various scenarios to significantly reduce net greenhouse gas emissions lead to a reduction in climate change?
Climate policy What are the trade-offs between mitigation costs, adaptation costs, and climate change damage?
Emissions What synergies between climate policy and air pollution control can be identified?
Emissions How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
Energy conversion What are the potential roles of individual technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), nuclear power, hydrogen and renewable energy?
Energy supply and demand What transitions in the energy system would meet long-term climate goals?
Item: GHG emissions (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy How can the implications of biofuels for land use and greenhouse gases be managed sustainably?
Atmospheric composition and climate To what extent would the various scenarios to significantly reduce net greenhouse gas emissions lead to a reduction in climate change?
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What opportunities exist to reduce land-use related carbon emissions (e.g. REDD) and even enhance the carbon uptake through the establishment of new forests.
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation To what extent can the terrestrial biosphere contribute to reducing the accumulation of CO2 in the atmosphere and what are viable mechanisms?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
Climate policy What is the effect of effort-sharing approaches on regional and national emission reduction targets and on the cost of climate policies?
Climate policy What global greenhouse gas emissions pathways would meet the 2 °C climate target?
Crops and grass How could management improve agricultural productivity under current and future water constraints?
Emissions How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
Emissions What synergies between climate policy and air pollution control can be identified?
Forest management What are the implications of forest management for pristine and managed forest areas, and on biomass and carbon stocks and fluxes of relevance for climate policy?
Land and biodiversity policies How can land-use policies contribute to strategies for halting biodiversity loss and reducing greenhouse gas emissions?
Livestock systems What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?
Item: Other climate (Climate)
ComponentDescription
Climate policy What is the effect of effort-sharing approaches on regional and national emission reduction targets and on the cost of climate policies?
Climate policy What global greenhouse gas emissions pathways would meet the 2 °C climate target?
Climate policy What are the trade-offs between mitigation costs, adaptation costs, and climate change damage?
Crops and grass How could management improve agricultural productivity under current and future water constraints?

Theme Air pollution

Item: Air quality (Air pollution)
ComponentDescription
Air pollution and energy policies How can the goals for affordable, clean and reliable energy be achieved taking into account possible synergies and trade-offs?
Air pollution and energy policies How do energy policies contribute to economic and social development, and how do they support or hamper a more sustainable future?
Emissions What synergies between climate policy and air pollution control can be identified?
Emissions How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
IMAGE framework summary What are the consequences of these changes for international targets for biodiversity protection (addressed by the CBD), climate change (UNFCCC) and human development (addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals)?
IMAGE framework summary How could global environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss and air pollution evolve?
Livestock systems What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?
Item: BC-OC emissions (Air pollution)
ComponentDescription
Emissions How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
Item: Other air pollution (Air pollution)
ComponentDescription
Emissions How will emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants develop in scenarios with and without policy interventions, such as climate policy and air pollution control?
Livestock systems What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?

Theme Food

Item: Animal husbandry (Food)
ComponentDescription
Land-use allocation How can agricultural intensification increase global food production, and what policies will contribute to this?
Livestock systems How does the use of marginal lands for grazing increase the risk of degradation and loss of productivity, inducing more forest clearing?
Livestock systems What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?
Item: Crop production (Food)
ComponentDescription
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water How do climate change and land-use management affect the land productivity of current and future agricultural land?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and associated agricultural production?
Crops and grass How will climate change affect the productivity of current and future agricultural areas?
Land-use allocation How can agricultural intensification increase global food production, and what policies will contribute to this?
Water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and on associated agricultural production?
Item: Food demand (Food)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy What are the policy options to reduce agricultural land use and to safeguard global biodiversity, while ensuring food security?
Item: Nutrition and diet (Food)
ComponentDescription
Land and biodiversity policies How can changes in consumption patterns contribute to achieving sustainability goals through changes in land use?
Land-use allocation How will changes in agricultural demand and trade affect future land-use patterns?
Livestock systems What are the impacts of increasing livestock production on land use, greenhouse gases and other emissions to air and surface water?
Item: Other food (Food)
ComponentDescription
Land and biodiversity policies What are the synergies and trade-offs between halting biodiversity loss, food security, reducing nutrient emissions, and reducing water stress?
Item: Trade (Food)
ComponentDescription
Land-use allocation How will changes in agricultural demand and trade affect future land-use patterns?

Theme Land use

Item: Agricultural land use (Land use)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy What is the area of cropland and grassland required to support future food demand?
Agricultural economy What are the policy options to reduce agricultural land use and to safeguard global biodiversity, while ensuring food security?
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water What is the role of the terrestrial biosphere in the global carbon cycle, how will it change in time as a result of climate and land-use change?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water How do climate change and land-use management affect the land productivity of current and future agricultural land?
Crops and grass How will agriculture affect the Earth system with respect to carbon emissions, freshwater availability and nutrient cycles?
Livestock systems How does the use of marginal lands for grazing increase the risk of degradation and loss of productivity, inducing more forest clearing?
Item: Degradation (Land use)
ComponentDescription
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What opportunities exist to reduce land-use related carbon emissions (e.g. REDD) and even enhance the carbon uptake through the establishment of new forests.
Land degradation What are the future risks of soil degradation?
Land degradation In what parts of the world have human-induced changes in land and soil conditions occurred?
Land degradation To what extent are ecosystem functions lost by soil degradation, adding to local and global concerns about food security, biodiversity loss and climate change?
Item: Forestry (Land use)
ComponentDescription
Forest management What are the prospects for more sustainable forest management and the role of production in dedicated forest plantations?
Forest management What are the implications of forest management for pristine and managed forest areas, and on biomass and carbon stocks and fluxes of relevance for climate policy?
Forest management How can management influence forest capacity to meet future demand for wood and other ecosystem services?
Land-use allocation How will land-use regulation, such as protected areas and REDD schemes, affect future land use and the impacts of land-use change?
Item: Land use system (Land use)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy What is the area of cropland and grassland required to support future food demand?
Land-use allocation How will land-use regulation, such as protected areas and REDD schemes, affect future land use and the impacts of land-use change?
Item: Other land use (Land use)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy How can the implications of biofuels for land use and greenhouse gases be managed sustainably?
Carbon cycle and natural vegetation What are the contributions of land-use change, climate change and CO2 fertilization on the future carbon cycle and how can these be considered in climate policies?

Theme Energy

Item: Energy demand (Energy)
ComponentDescription
Air pollution and energy policies How can the goals for affordable, clean and reliable energy be achieved taking into account possible synergies and trade-offs?
Air pollution and energy policies How do energy policies contribute to economic and social development, and how do they support or hamper a more sustainable future?
Energy demand How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on the global environment?
Energy demand What is the mix of end-use energy carriers to meet future energy demand?
Energy demand How will energy demand evolve particularly in emerging and medium- and low-income economies?
Energy supply How can energy supply and demand be balanced between world regions, and how will this effect security of supply?
Energy supply and demand How can energy supply and demand become more sustainable, balancing human development, security of supply, and concerns about climate change and air pollution?
Item: Energy emissions (Energy)
ComponentDescription
Energy demand How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on the global environment?
Energy supply and demand How can energy supply and demand become more sustainable, balancing human development, security of supply, and concerns about climate change and air pollution?
Item: Energy system (Energy)
ComponentDescription
Energy demand How can energy efficiency contribute to reducing the growth rate of energy demand and mitigate pressures on the global environment?
Energy supply How rapidly can the transition to more sustainable energy supply be made?
Energy supply How can energy resources be exploited to meet future primary energy demand?
Energy supply and demand How can energy supply and demand become more sustainable, balancing human development, security of supply, and concerns about climate change and air pollution?
Item: Other energy (Energy)
ComponentDescription
Energy conversion What is the potential role of energy conversion sector, particularly in power production, in achieving a more sustainable energy system?
Energy conversion What are the potential roles of individual technologies, such as carbon capture and storage (CCS), nuclear power, hydrogen and renewable energy?
Energy supply and demand How can energy supply and demand become more sustainable, balancing human development, security of supply, and concerns about climate change and air pollution?
Energy supply and demand How are these strategies affected by uncertainties in the energy system?
Energy supply and demand What transitions in the energy system would meet long-term climate goals?

Theme Water

Item: Irrigation (Water)
ComponentDescription
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and associated agricultural production?
Water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and on associated agricultural production?
Water What is the potential of adaptation measures to reduce water stress and water-related crop production losses?
Item: Other water (Water)
ComponentDescription
Flood risks What would be suitable adaptation strategies and investment options related to flood risk?
Flood risks How will future flood risk change as a result of socio-economic changes and climate change?
Flood risks What would be the impact of floods, in terms of damage and victims, and where are the hot spots?
Item: Water quality (Water)
ComponentDescription
Aquatic biodiversity How will the biodiversity in freshwater bodies develop in the absence of additional policies and measures?
Aquatic biodiversity How will policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors contribute to meeting the internationally agreed targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
Aquatic biodiversity What are the key pressure factors causing loss of aquatic biodiversity?
Nutrients To what extent can the negative impacts be reduced by more efficient nutrient management and wastewater treatment, while retaining the positive effects on food production and land productivity?
Item: Water stress (Water)
ComponentDescription
Aquatic biodiversity How will policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors contribute to meeting the internationally agreed targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
Carbon, vegetation, agriculture and water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and associated agricultural production?
Crops and grass How will agriculture affect the Earth system with respect to carbon emissions, freshwater availability and nutrient cycles?
Land and biodiversity policies What are the synergies and trade-offs between halting biodiversity loss, food security, reducing nutrient emissions, and reducing water stress?
Nutrients How will the increasing use of fertilisers affect terrestrial and marine ecosystems, with possible consequences for human health?
Water What is the combined effect of climate change and socio-economic development on water demand and availability, and on associated agricultural production?
Water What is the potential of adaptation measures to reduce water stress and water-related crop production losses?
Water How can water demand be reduced and still provide the adequate service levels to the sectors with the highest demand?

Theme Human development

Item: Human development (HD)
ComponentDescription
Human development What are the key future trends in human development, such as those targeted by the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)?
Human development How is improved access to food, water and energy likely to contribute to human development?
Human development How are changes in the global environment likely to affect human development?
IMAGE framework summary How could response strategies limit environmental pressures and foster more sustainable development?
IMAGE framework summary What are the linkages between components of environmental change and human development? What are key uncertainties?

Theme Nature and biodiversity

Item: Aquatic biodiversity (NB)
ComponentDescription
Aquatic biodiversity How will the biodiversity in freshwater bodies develop in the absence of additional policies and measures?
Aquatic biodiversity How will policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors contribute to meeting the internationally agreed targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
Aquatic biodiversity What are the key pressure factors causing loss of aquatic biodiversity?
IMAGE framework summary What are the consequences of these changes for international targets for biodiversity protection (addressed by the CBD), climate change (UNFCCC) and human development (addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals)?
IMAGE framework summary How could global environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss and air pollution evolve?
Terrestrial biodiversity What are the key pressure factors causing biodiversity loss?
Terrestrial biodiversity How will nature conservation policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors of biodiversity loss contribute to meeting the targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?
Item: Eco goods and services (NB)
ComponentDescription
Ecosystem services How could policy interventions contribute to improving future ecosystem services?
Ecosystem services How would ecosystem services and the benefits from the natural environment develop in the absence of specific policies?
Ecosystem services How could policy interventions influence the interaction between ecosystem services and other goals and ambitions, such as the millennium development goals?
Forest management How can management influence forest capacity to meet future demand for wood and other ecosystem services?
Item: Land cover (NB)
ComponentDescription
Aquatic biodiversity How will the biodiversity in freshwater bodies develop in the absence of additional policies and measures?
Crops and grass How will agriculture affect the Earth system with respect to carbon emissions, freshwater availability and nutrient cycles?
Item: Terrestrial biodiversity (NB)
ComponentDescription
Agricultural economy What are the policy options to reduce agricultural land use and to safeguard global biodiversity, while ensuring food security?
IMAGE framework summary What are the consequences of these changes for international targets for biodiversity protection (addressed by the CBD), climate change (UNFCCC) and human development (addressed by the Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals)?
IMAGE framework summary How could global environmental issues such as climate change, biodiversity loss and air pollution evolve?
Land and biodiversity policies What are the synergies and trade-offs between halting biodiversity loss, food security, reducing nutrient emissions, and reducing water stress?
Land and biodiversity policies How can land-use policies contribute to strategies for halting biodiversity loss and reducing greenhouse gas emissions?
Land degradation In what parts of the world have human-induced changes in land and soil conditions occurred?
Terrestrial biodiversity What are the key pressure factors causing biodiversity loss?
Terrestrial biodiversity What is the future rate of terrestrial biodiversity loss in the absence of additional policies and measures?
Terrestrial biodiversity How will nature conservation policies and measures to reduce the key pressure factors of biodiversity loss contribute to meeting the targets of the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)?

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