IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

Policy interventions and components overview

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Policy interventions are implemented in a model component (mostly one). The result of this implementation affects other model components. Each component contains a Policy intervention Table on its 'Policy issues' page describing the effects of policy interventions. Use the link in the 'Affects components' column to navigate to the components Policy issues page, (*) denotes the implementing component.

Policy interventionDescriptionAffects component
Agricultural trade policies Changes in agricultural trade policies are applied to the corresponding quota (export or import quota) or border taxes.
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Avoiding deforestation Here comes description
Capacity targets It is possible to prescribe the shares of renewables, CCS technology, nuclear power and other forms of generation capacity. This measure influences the amount of capacity installed of the technology chosen.
Carbon tax A tax on carbon leads to higher prices for carbon intensive fuels (such as fossil fuels), making low-carbon alternatives more attractive.
Change in grazing intensity Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.
Change market shares of fuel types Exogenously set the market shares of certain fuel types. This can be done for specific analyses or scenarios to explore the broader implications of increasing the use of, for instance, biofuels, electricity or hydrogen and reflects the impact of fuel targets.
Change the use of electricity and hydrogen It is possible to promote the use of electricity and hydrogen at the end-use level.
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Changes in crop and livestock production systems General changes in crop and livestock production systems, e.g. more efficient production methods to create higher production per unit of input, or other systems like organic farming
Changes in feed ration Change in the share of grass in the feed rations of cattle, sheep and goats, usually a decrease, meaning grass will be substituted by feed crops and the livestock system will be more intensive.
Climate change adaptation Adaptation to climate change reduces climate damage. The model can optimally calculate the optimal adaptation level based on marginal adaptation costs and marginal avoided damage, but an alternative adaptation level can be used as well.
Closing the yield gap This intervention increases actual yields (reduces the gap between potential and actual yields), usually realized by better management.
Effort- or burden-sharing of emission reductions Evaluation of burden-sharing or effort-sharing regimes. Which regions or countries should contribute, when and by how much to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions?
Emission trading policy Analysis of the effect of rules for trading emission credits on regional abatement costs.
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Excluding certain technologies Certain energy technology options can be excluded in the model for environmental, societal, and/or security reasons.
Expanding Reduced Impact Logging Increasing the share of produced wood yielded with Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) practices instead of conventional logging practices.
Financing climate policy Developed countries could provide financial resources to assist developing countries by implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies. To mobilise these funds, several mechanisms exist, of which the effect can be analysed
Hydropower Construction of dams and reservoirs in rivers
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Implementation of land use planning Application of zoning laws or cadastres, assigning areas to certain land uses.
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
Improve behaviour Reduce the health impacts of malnutrition and inadequate access to safe drinking water, basic sanitaion and modern sources of energy, through, for example, improving female education, promoting good hygiene and providing good indoor good ventilation
Improve quality of access Improve the quality of access to drinking water, sanitation and modern sources of energy, through, for example, household connections to drinking-water supply and the use of LPG or kerosene instead of traditional biomass on improved biomass stoves
Improved irrigation efficiency Improved irrigation efficiency assumes an increase in the irrigation project efficiency and irrigation conveyance efficiency.
Improved manure storage Improved manure storage systems (ST), considering 20% lower NH3 emissions from animal housing and storage systems.
Improved rainwater management Improved rainwater management assumes a decrease in the evaporative losses from rainfed agriculture and the creation of small scale reservoirs to harvest rainwater during the wet period and use it during a dryer period. Both measures lead to more efficient use of water and increased yields on rainfed fields.
Improvement of feed conversion Improvement of feed conversion ratio of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats. This means other breeds will be used that need less grass to produce the same amount of meat [CHECK!].
Improving energy efficiency Exogenously set improvement in efficiency. Such improvements can be introduced for the submodels that focus on particular technologies, for example, in transport, heavy industry and households submodels.
Increase access to food Increase access to food by targeting food prices for the poorest households
Increase access to water Increase access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation by lowering prices and investing in infrastructure
Increase forest plantations Increase the use of wood from highly productive wood plantations instead of wood from (semi-) natural forests.
Increase natural carbon storage It should be noted that policy measures to increase carbon storage often generate certain co-benefits, such as the restoration of watershed and wildlife habitats, and the prevention of soil erosion.
Increased livestock productivity A change in production characteristics, such as milk production per animal, carcass weight and off-take rates, which will also have an impact on the feed conversion ratio; in general, this will be lower in more productive animals
Increased storage capacity Increasing storage capacity assumes that the total water volume stored in large reservoirs will increase. This can either be established by an increase of the capacity of existing reservoirs, or by building new reservoirs.
Integrated manure management Better integration of manure in crop production systems. This consists of recycling of manure that under the baseline scenario ends up outside the agricultural system (e.g. manure used as fuel), in crop systems to substitute fertiliser. In addition, there is improved integration of animal manure in crop systems, particularly in industrialised countries.
Intensification/extensification of livestock systems A change in the distribution of the production over pastoral and mixed systems; usually to a larger share of the production in mixed systems, which inherently changes the overall feed conversion ratios of ruminants.
Mitigate environmental changes Mitigating environmental changes, such as climate change, biodiversity loss and water stress
More sustainable forest management Sustainable forest management aims for maintaining long-term harvest potential and good ecological status of forests (e.g. the nutrient balance and biodiversity). This can be implemented by (i) enlarging the return period when a forest can be harvested again; (ii) only using certain fractions of the harvested biomass and leave the remaining part in the forests.
Production targets for energy technologies Production targets for energy technologies can be set to force technologies through a learning curve.
Provision on improved stoves for traditional bio-energy Increases the efficiency of bio-energy use.
REDD policies The objective of REDD policies it to reduce land-use related emissions by protecting existing forests in the world; The implementation of REDD includes also costs of policies.
Reducing health risk (primary) prevention, i.e. eliminating or reducing the health risk
Reduction of waste/losses Reduction of losses in the agro-food chain and waste after consumption.
Reduction proposals (pledges) Evaluation of current reduction proposals by countries and policy options (for the next 10-20 years).
Restrictions on fuel trade As part of energy security policies, fuel trade between different regions can be blocked.
Sanitation measures Increase the access to improved sanitation, and connection to sewage systems; institution of wastewater treatment installations; recycling of human waste for substitution of synthetic fertilisers.
Subsidies on modern energy Reduces the costs of modern energy to reduce traditional energy use (can be targeted to low income groups).
(*) Implementing component.

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