IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.

Policy interventions maintenance overview

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All policy interventions with their themes, description and related component

Policy interventionThemeItemsDescriptionComponent
REDD policies
  • Climate mitigation (Climate)
The objective of REDD policies it to reduce land-use related emissions by protecting existing forests in the world; The implementation of REDD includes also costs of policies.Agricultural economy
Changes in consumption and diet preferences
  • Agricultural land use (Land use)
  • Nutrition and diet (Food)
  • GHG emissions (Climate)
  • Animal husbandry (Food)
  • Crop production (Food)
  • Food demand (Food)
Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferencesAgricultural economy
Agricultural trade policies
  • Agricultural land use (Land use)
  • Trade (Food)
Changes in agricultural trade policies are applied to the corresponding quota (export or import quota) or border taxes.Agricultural economy
Closing the yield gap
    This intervention increases actual yields (reduces the gap between potential and actual yields), usually realized by better management.Agricultural economy
    Changes in crop and livestock production systems
      General changes in crop and livestock production systems, e.g. more efficient production methods to create higher production per unit of input, or other systems like organic farmingAgricultural economy
      Implementation of biofuel targets
      • Energy system (Energy)
      • Other energy (Energy)
      • Energy demand (Energy)
      • Agricultural land use (Land use)
      • Eco goods and services (NB)
      • Land cover (NB)
      • Other nature and biodiversity (NB)
      • Climate mitigation (Climate)
      Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.Agricultural economy
      Reduction of waste/losses
      • Agricultural land use (Land use)
      • Food demand (Food)
      Reduction of losses in the agro-food chain and waste after consumption.Agricultural economy
      Hydropower
      • Other energy (Energy)
      Construction of dams and reservoirs in riversAquatic biodiversity
      Climate change adaptation
        Adaptation to climate change reduces climate damage. The model can optimally calculate the optimal adaptation level based on marginal adaptation costs and marginal avoided damage, but an alternative adaptation level can be used as well.Climate policy
        Reduction proposals (pledges)
          Evaluation of current reduction proposals by countries and policy options (for the next 10-20 years).Climate policy
          Effort- or burden-sharing of emission reductions
            Evaluation of burden-sharing or effort-sharing regimes. Which regions or countries should contribute, when and by how much to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions?Climate policy
            Emission trading policy
              Analysis of the effect of rules for trading emission credits on regional abatement costs.Climate policy
              Financing climate policy
              • Other climate (Climate)
              Developed countries could provide financial resources to assist developing countries by implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies. To mobilise these funds, several mechanisms exist, of which the effect can be analysedClimate policy
              Change the use of electricity and hydrogen
                It is possible to promote the use of electricity and hydrogen at the end-use level.Energy conversion
                Apply emission and energy intensity standards
                • Energy demand (Energy)
                • Energy emissions (Energy)
                • Energy system (Energy)
                • Climate mitigation (Climate)
                • GHG emissions (Climate)
                Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).Energy conversion, Energy demand
                Capacity targets
                  It is possible to prescribe the shares of renewables, CCS technology, nuclear power and other forms of generation capacity. This measure influences the amount of capacity installed of the technology chosen.Energy conversion
                  Carbon tax
                    A tax on carbon leads to higher prices for carbon intensive fuels (such as fossil fuels), making low-carbon alternatives more attractive.Energy conversion, Energy demand, Climate policy
                    Excluding certain technologies
                      Certain energy technology options can be excluded in the model for environmental, societal, and/or security reasons.Energy conversion
                      Provision on improved stoves for traditional bio-energy
                        Increases the efficiency of bio-energy use.Energy demand
                        Improving energy efficiency
                          Exogenously set improvement in efficiency. Such improvements can be introduced for the submodels that focus on particular technologies, for example, in transport, heavy industry and households submodels.Energy demand
                          Change market shares of fuel types
                            Exogenously set the market shares of certain fuel types. This can be done for specific analyses or scenarios to explore the broader implications of increasing the use of, for instance, biofuels, electricity or hydrogen and reflects the impact of fuel targets.Energy demand
                            Subsidies on modern energy
                              Reduces the costs of modern energy to reduce traditional energy use (can be targeted to low income groups).Energy demand
                              Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production
                              • Energy demand (Energy)
                              • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                              • Degradation (Land use)
                              • Terrestrial biodiversity (NB)
                              • Climate mitigation (Climate)
                              Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.Energy supply, Land cover and land use
                              Restrictions on fuel trade
                                As part of energy security policies, fuel trade between different regions can be blocked.Energy supply
                                Energy tax or subsidiy
                                • Energy emissions (Energy)
                                • Energy system (Energy)
                                • Air quality (Air pollution)
                                • Climate mitigation (Climate)
                                • GHG emissions (Climate)
                                Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.Energy supply
                                Production targets for energy technologies
                                  Production targets for energy technologies can be set to force technologies through a learning curve.Energy supply
                                  More sustainable forest management
                                    Sustainable forest management aims for maintaining long-term harvest potential and good ecological status of forests (e.g. the nutrient balance and biodiversity). This can be implemented by (i) enlarging the return period when a forest can be harvested again; (ii) only using certain fractions of the harvested biomass and leave the remaining part in the forests.Forest management
                                    Increase forest plantations
                                    • Forestry (Land use)
                                    • Other land use (Land use)
                                    • Terrestrial biodiversity (NB)
                                    Increase the use of wood from highly productive wood plantations instead of wood from (semi-) natural forests.Forest management
                                    Expanding Reduced Impact Logging
                                    • Forestry (Land use)
                                    Increasing the share of produced wood yielded with Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) practices instead of conventional logging practices.Forest management
                                    Improve behaviour
                                      Reduce the health impacts of malnutrition and inadequate access to safe drinking water, basic sanitaion and modern sources of energy, through, for example, improving female education, promoting good hygiene and providing good indoor good ventilationHuman development
                                      Increase access to water
                                        Increase access to safe drinking water and improved sanitation by lowering prices and investing in infrastructureHuman development
                                        Increase access to food
                                          Increase access to food by targeting food prices for the poorest householdsHuman development
                                          Improve quality of access
                                            Improve the quality of access to drinking water, sanitation and modern sources of energy, through, for example, household connections to drinking-water supply and the use of LPG or kerosene instead of traditional biomass on improved biomass stovesHuman development
                                            Implementation of land use planning
                                            • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                                            • Other land use (Land use)
                                            Application of zoning laws or cadastres, assigning areas to certain land uses.Land-use allocation
                                            Enlarge protected areas
                                            • Terrestrial biodiversity (NB)
                                            • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                                            • Other land use (Land use)
                                            • Eco goods and services (NB)
                                            • Aquatic biodiversity (NB)
                                            • Land cover (NB)
                                            Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.Land-use allocation
                                            Change in grazing intensity
                                            • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                                            • Land use system (Land use)
                                            • Natural vegetation (Land use)
                                            • Animal husbandry (Food)
                                            Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.Land-use allocation
                                            Improvement of feed conversion
                                            • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                                            • Animal husbandry (Food)
                                            Improvement of feed conversion ratio of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats. This means other breeds will be used that need less grass to produce the same amount of meat [CHECK!].Livestock systems
                                            Intensification/extensification of livestock systems
                                            • Animal husbandry (Food)
                                            A change in the distribution of the production over pastoral and mixed systems; usually to a larger share of the production in mixed systems, which inherently changes the overall feed conversion ratios of ruminants.Livestock systems
                                            Changes in feed ration
                                              Change in the share of grass in the feed rations of cattle, sheep and goats, usually a decrease, meaning grass will be substituted by feed crops and the livestock system will be more intensive.Livestock systems
                                              Increased livestock productivity
                                              • Agricultural land use (Land use)
                                              • Animal husbandry (Food)
                                              A change in production characteristics, such as milk production per animal, carcass weight and off-take rates, which will also have an impact on the feed conversion ratio; in general, this will be lower in more productive animalsLivestock systems
                                              Improved manure storage
                                                Improved manure storage systems (ST), considering 20% lower NH3 emissions from animal housing and storage systems.Nutrients
                                                Integrated manure management
                                                  Better integration of manure in crop production systems. This consists of recycling of manure that under the baseline scenario ends up outside the agricultural system (e.g. manure used as fuel), in crop systems to substitute fertiliser. In addition, there is improved integration of animal manure in crop systems, particularly in industrialised countries.Nutrients
                                                  Sanitation measures
                                                  • Access to drinking water (Water)
                                                  Increase the access to improved sanitation, and connection to sewage systems; institution of wastewater treatment installations; recycling of human waste for substitution of synthetic fertilisers.Nutrients
                                                  Increased storage capacity
                                                  • Flood risk (Water)
                                                  • Irrigation (Water)
                                                  Increasing storage capacity assumes that the total water volume stored in large reservoirs will increase. This can either be established by an increase of the capacity of existing reservoirs, or by building new reservoirs.Water
                                                  Improved irrigation efficiency
                                                  • Irrigation (Water)
                                                  Improved irrigation efficiency assumes an increase in the irrigation project efficiency and irrigation conveyance efficiency.Water
                                                  Improved rainwater management
                                                  • Precipitation (Water)
                                                  • Crop production (Food)
                                                  Improved rainwater management assumes a decrease in the evaporative losses from rainfed agriculture and the creation of small scale reservoirs to harvest rainwater during the wet period and use it during a dryer period. Both measures lead to more efficient use of water and increased yields on rainfed fields.Water