IMAGEIntegrated Model to Assess the Global Environment.



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Access to drinking water and sanitation +Percentage of the population with sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation.
Accessibility - grid +Accessibility expressed as travel time.
Actual crop and grass production - grid +Actual crop and grass production on agricultural land, based on potential yield and management intensityÍÍ
Adaptation costs +Costs for adaptation measures to reduce the vulnerability of natural and human systems to actual or expected climate change effects.
Adaptation level +Level of adaptation to climate change , defined as the share of climate change damage avoided by adaptation. This level is be calculated by the model to minimise adaptation costs and residual damage, or set by the user.
Agricultural area - grid +Total area for crop production (annual and perennial) and intensive grassland.
Air pollution policy +Air pollution policies set to reach emission reduction targets, represented in the model in the form of energy carrier and sector specific emission factors.
Algal blooms in lakes +Harmful algal blooms in lakes caused by cyanobacteria, producing toxins harmful to humans and animals.
Animal productivity +Effective production of livestock commodities per animal per year.
Animal stocks +Number of animals per category: non-dairy cattle; dairy cattle; pigs; sheep and goats; poultry.
Aquatic MSA - grid +Relative Mean Species Abundance of original species in lakes, rivers and wetlands.


BC, OC and NOx emissions +Emissions of BC, OC and NO<sub>x</sub> per year.
Bioenergy area +Area of bioenergy crop production, in model setting where sustainability criteria require that the area for bioenergy crops is not included in the agricultural production area (to avoid competition between bioenergy and food).
Bioenergy production +Total bioenergy production.
Biofuel policy +Policies to foster the use of biofuels in transport, such as financial incentives and biofuel mandates and obligations.
Biome and eco-region - grid +Biomes are groups of plants and animals, often referred as ecosystems. Their spatial distribution on Earth is defined by climatic and geographical conditions defined as contiguous areas with similar climatic conditions. Biomes are often referred to by climatic conditions (such as, tropical, temperate, boreal) and physiological characteristic (such as, grassland, deciduous trees, coniferous trees).
Built-up area - grid +Urban built-up area per grid cell, excluded from all biophysical modelling in IMAGE, increasing over time as a function of urban population and a country- and scenario-specific urban density curve.


CLUmondo specific input - grid +CLUMondo specific input.
CO and NMVOC emissions +Emissions from CO and NMVOC.
CO2 concentration +Atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration.
CO2 emission from energy and industry +CO<sub>2</sub> emission from energy and industry.
CO2 stored +The amount of CO<sub>2</sub> stored in underground reservoirs by applying CO<sub>2</sub> capture technology..
Capital supply +Capital available to replace depreciated stock and expand the stock to support economic growth.
Carbon pools in soil and timber - grid +Carbon biomass in three soil pools (litter, humus and charcoal) and two timber pools (slow decaying, and fast decaying).
Carbon pools in vegetation - grid +Carbon pools in leaves, stems, branches and roots).
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