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Policy interventions overview

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Policy interventions are implemented in components and affects the results of other components. The overview displays policy interventions per policy theme, their description, components implementing the intervention and affected components.

Theme Climate

Climate mitigation (Climate)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
REDD policies The objective of REDD policies it to reduce land-use related emissions by protecting existing forests in the world; The implementation of REDD includes also costs of policies.
GHG emissions (Climate)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.
Other climate (Climate)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Financing climate policy Developed countries could provide financial resources to assist developing countries by implementation of mitigation and adaptation policies. To mobilise these funds, several mechanisms exist, of which the effect can be analysed

Theme Air pollution

Air quality (Air pollution)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.

Theme Food

Animal husbandry (Food)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Change in grazing intensity Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Improvement of feed conversion Improvement of feed conversion ratio of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats. This means other breeds will be used that need less grass to produce the same amount of meat [CHECK!].
Increased livestock productivity A change in production characteristics, such as milk production per animal, carcass weight and off-take rates, which will also have an impact on the feed conversion ratio; in general, this will be lower in more productive animals
Intensification/extensification of livestock systems A change in the distribution of the production over pastoral and mixed systems; usually to a larger share of the production in mixed systems, which inherently changes the overall feed conversion ratios of ruminants.
Crop production (Food)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Improved rainwater management Improved rainwater management assumes a decrease in the evaporative losses from rainfed agriculture and the creation of small scale reservoirs to harvest rainwater during the wet period and use it during a dryer period. Both measures lead to more efficient use of water and increased yields on rainfed fields.
Food demand (Food)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Reduction of waste/losses Reduction of losses in the agro-food chain and waste after consumption.
Nutrition and diet (Food)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Trade (Food)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Agricultural trade policies Changes in agricultural trade policies are applied to the corresponding quota (export or import quota) or border taxes.

Theme Land use

Agricultural land use (Land use)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Agricultural trade policies Changes in agricultural trade policies are applied to the corresponding quota (export or import quota) or border taxes.
Change in grazing intensity Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.
Changes in consumption and diet preferences Interventions that target consumption changes or changes in dietary preferences
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Implementation of land use planning Application of zoning laws or cadastres, assigning areas to certain land uses.
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
Improvement of feed conversion Improvement of feed conversion ratio of small ruminants, such as sheep and goats. This means other breeds will be used that need less grass to produce the same amount of meat [CHECK!].
Increased livestock productivity A change in production characteristics, such as milk production per animal, carcass weight and off-take rates, which will also have an impact on the feed conversion ratio; in general, this will be lower in more productive animals
Reduction of waste/losses Reduction of losses in the agro-food chain and waste after consumption.
Degradation (Land use)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
Forestry (Land use)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Expanding Reduced Impact Logging Increasing the share of produced wood yielded with Reduced Impact Logging (RIL) practices instead of conventional logging practices.
Increase forest plantations Increase the use of wood from highly productive wood plantations instead of wood from (semi-) natural forests.
Land use system (Land use)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Change in grazing intensity Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.
Natural vegetation (Land use)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Change in grazing intensity Change in grazing intensity, usually more intensive. This would require better management of grasslands, including for example the use of grass-clover mixtures and fertilisers, bringing the length of the grazing season in tune with the period of grass production, and rotations.
Other land use (Land use)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Implementation of land use planning Application of zoning laws or cadastres, assigning areas to certain land uses.
Increase forest plantations Increase the use of wood from highly productive wood plantations instead of wood from (semi-) natural forests.

Theme Energy

Energy demand (Energy)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
Energy emissions (Energy)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.
Energy system (Energy)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Apply emission and energy intensity standards Apply emission intensity standards for e.g. cars (gCO2/km), power plants (gCO2/kWh) or appliances (kWh/hour).
Energy tax or subsidiy Changing the prices through energy tax or subsidy for the various energy carriers influences the choice of technology and thus the level of emissions.
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Other energy (Energy)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Hydropower Construction of dams and reservoirs in rivers
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.

Theme Water

Access to drinking water (Water)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Sanitation measures Increase the access to improved sanitation, and connection to sewage systems; institution of wastewater treatment installations; recycling of human waste for substitution of synthetic fertilisers.
Flood risk (Water)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Increased storage capacity Increasing storage capacity assumes that the total water volume stored in large reservoirs will increase. This can either be established by an increase of the capacity of existing reservoirs, or by building new reservoirs.
Irrigation (Water)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Improved irrigation efficiency Improved irrigation efficiency assumes an increase in the irrigation project efficiency and irrigation conveyance efficiency.
Increased storage capacity Increasing storage capacity assumes that the total water volume stored in large reservoirs will increase. This can either be established by an increase of the capacity of existing reservoirs, or by building new reservoirs.
Precipitation (Water)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Improved rainwater management Improved rainwater management assumes a decrease in the evaporative losses from rainfed agriculture and the creation of small scale reservoirs to harvest rainwater during the wet period and use it during a dryer period. Both measures lead to more efficient use of water and increased yields on rainfed fields.

Theme Human development

Theme Nature and biodiversity

Aquatic biodiversity (NB)

Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Eco goods and services (NB)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Land cover (NB)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Other nature and biodiversity (NB)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Implementation of biofuel targets Policies to enhance the use of biofuels, especially in the transport sector. In the Agricultural economy component only 'first generation' crops are taken into account. The policy is implemented as a budget-neutral policy from government perspective, e.g. a subsidy is implemented to achieve a certain share of biofuels in fuel production and an end-user tax is applied to counterfinance the implemented subsidy.
Terrestrial biodiversity (NB)
Policy interventionDescriptionImplemented inAffects component
Enlarge protected areas Increase in areas with protected status, as well the size of the areas as the numer of parks.
Implementation of sustainability criteria in bio-energy production Sustainability criteria that could become binding for dedicated bio-energy production, such as the restrictive use of water-scarce or degraded areas.
Increase forest plantations Increase the use of wood from highly productive wood plantations instead of wood from (semi-) natural forests.

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