Nature Outlook 2010-2040

Nature perspectives

In the Nature Outlook 2010–2040, the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency has looked at nature and landscapes in the Netherlands some thirty years into the future. This was done on the basis of four ideal-typical nature perspectives which outline the bandwidth between conservation and use of the natural environment in which we live. These nature perspectives are the basis for the policy suggestions that PBL has formulated towards nature and landscape policy reform.

Motives and objectives

Starting points for creating these nature perspectives were people’s motives for occupying themselves with nature and the landscape. These motives may vary widely. Some people take an ethical approach, for example, from the view that humanity should give careful consideration to our planet’s biodiversity. There are also motives which are based on what people want from nature; nature as a source of enjoyment and relaxation, for example. The various motives for nature also determine society’s objectives related to nature, such as conservation or a better utilisation of the services nature can supply.

Four Nature Perspectives

We have used the various motives and objectives as a basis for developing the four nature perspectives for 2040 (see also figure):

The nature perspectives clearly show that nature and the landscape are used and appreciated in many different ways by people in society.
There are various ways to achieve these nature perspectives. To serve as an example, we have developed a possible policy strategy for each nature perspective.
Tabel met drijfveren en opgaven per kijkrichting

Ideal-typical visions of the future

The nature perspectives are ideal-typical visions of the future, intended to widen the scope of thinking on nature and the landscape. In that sense, they are one-dimensional and none will become an independent reality. In practice, combinations will often be seen. For example, think of the significance of many nature areas in terms of both biodiversity and recreational use.

More info

The Nature Outlook is a statutory product of the PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency with cooperation from Wageningen UR.